Conference Presentations Day One
9:00 – 9:45
Homo Ludens: New Ways of Learning and New Paths for CALL
Director of the UC Consortium for
Language Learning and Teaching
University of California, Davis
10:00 – 10:45
To Tweet or Not to Tweet: Practices and Outcomes of Using Twitter for Language Learners and Teachers
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This presentation discusses the role of Twitter in two classroom settings: an intermediate language class and a graduate teacher training course. In the language class, students tweeted three times per week with each other and with native speakers. Tweets represented status updates and current happenings in their lives. In the other project, over 70 teachers-in-training from around the US and Canada tweeted regular reactions and reflections to their experiences as new teachers. In both cases, participants quickly formed part of a collaborative community which they were able to take advantage of to learn, share and reflect.
Accent Reduction Program for Creole Speakers: An Intensive Blended Learning Approach
Students at Bluefield’s Indian Caribbean University (BICU), Nicaragua, were provided with an intensive three-month accent reduction pilot program using a specially developed blended learning solution. A unique blend of communicative and engaging online and classroom activities was created to provide students and teachers with a meaningful learning experience. The online program consisted of pronunciation, grammar and fluency units that covered the most severe problems for strongly-accented Creole speech. This was accompanied by innovative communicative-based frontal lessons and extensive practice word lists. Results showed that non-standard English speaking teachers were able to successfully deliver Standard English pronunciation training.
Self-instructional, Networking, or Class Management Tools? Creating and Customizing a CMC from Existing Plug-ins for WordPress MU: Preliminary Findings
We will discuss production of a uniform, coherent, and intuitive learning system, one reducing the burdensome demand of learning several praiseworthy online tools but including their features. Our solution: a system with a customizable feature set derived from open source WordPress MU and plug-ins, including quizzing software, a video/audio flash recorder, secure logins, and on-the-fly updating. Specifications included self-instructional software, networking tools, and a course management system. Development costs being prohibitive, we relied on only minimal assistance from a programmer. Problems experienced in development will be discussed, as well as student learning outcome and reactions.
Foreign Language Learning in Immersive Gaming Environments: A State of Affairs
Frederik Cornillie K.U.Leuven campus Kortrijk
Although the term ‘serious game’ has only recently come into wide use, digital games have long attracted the attention of CALL, both in theory and in practice. Digital games allow to immerse learners in environments which stimulate experiential learning and focus on functional aspects of language, and, recently, multiplayer online games have come to be understood to encourage collaborative learning. This presentation will review current and past research on digital games in CALL in light of some fundamental issues in SLA, and will finally report on a R&D project which aims to deliver a prototype of game-based foreign language learning.
Researching Learners’ Use of Corpus-based Resources during Focus-on-form
What do language learners do with actual, real corpus-based applications? Our research examines the actual use of corpus-based resources made by two groups of learners (n=31) randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (guided vs unguided corpus consultation). During two sessions learners were asked to complete focus-on-form different activities on cleft-sentences and inversion with the aid of existing corpus-based resources, and in particular with the aid of the BNC. The behavior of the students was tracked by the research team and then summarized and analyzed.
Pedagogical Scaffolding in a Game-based CALL Environment
Game-based learning is fun, but only if learners have developed the language skills required to play the game. At Alelo, we employ an elaborate scaffolding methodology within our game-based courses to systematically build the skills of a learner. Through the use of language instruction pages, review exercises, listening comprehension pages, utterance formation pages, mini-dialogs, and active-dialogs, learners are systemically prepared to carry out full conversations in our highly-immersive, task-based scenarios in 3-D virtual environments. In this presentation, we will present an overview of Alelo’s scaffolding methodology and a live demonstration of our award-winning software widely used by the US military.
Comparing a Large- and Small-Scale Distance Language Program: An Examination of Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions
The present study compares a large-scale distance language program that enrolls 350 students per semester (50 students per teacher) with a small-scale program that caps enrollment at 25 students per teacher. We will report the results of interview and survey data, which is organized in four themes: (a) student and teacher perceptions of the course, (b) the amount and quality of the interaction between the teachers and students, (c) departmental support, and (d) student motivation to continue with distance language learning in the future. By sharing our findings, we hope to contribute to the effectiveness of distance program design.
11:00 – 11:20
Using Video/Photo Blogs and Wikis to Elicit the Spanish Aspect
Daniel Castaneda Kent State University, Stark
This study investigated the effects of the integration of video/photo blogs and wikis in the learning and teaching of the preterite and imperfect aspects in Spanish from the discourse perspective. Achievement level results revealed that there were no significant differences at the production level between the students who used blog and wiki technologies versus those who used traditional technologies. However, significant differences were found at the recognition level for the group that used blogs and wikis when compared with those who used traditional technologies. As for satisfaction levels, the groups using wikis and traditional technologies responded more favorably than the groups using blogs.
Learning to Laugh: A Conversational Analysis of Computer-mediated Interaction
Marta Gonzalez-Lloret University of Hawai’i
The presentation will focus on the potential that Conversation Analysis (CA) has for the investigation of computer-mediated communication (CMC). A brief presentation of CA key concepts for the sequential analysis of CMC will be followed by a review of previous research on L1 CMC which has successfully employed CA. Afterwards, data from a telecollaborative project between L1 Spanish speakers and L2 Spanish learners will be analyzed to illustrate how CA can reveal patterns of learning in learners’ longitudinal data, specifically, learning to effectively engage in joking sequences. Finally, possible limitations of CA and future lines of research will be suggested.
Foreign Language Education and the Race to the Top: Policy, Strategy, Capitol Hill, and JNCL
Betty Rose Facer Old Dominion University
This presentation will focus on the latest developments of the 111th Congress concerning foreign languages and international education from JNCL (Joint National Committee for Languages) and Capitol Hill. Learn more about the mission of the Joint National Committee for Languages (JNCL) and the National Committee for Languages and International Studies (NCLIS) and their active role on Capitol Hill. Understand current policy issues affecting the field of language professionals from the 2010 Delegate Assembly and Legislative Forum in Washington, DC. Be more informed on how JNCL identifies, advocates, and helps to develop policy on key issues related to foreign language education.
Social Presence in Online Multimodal Communication: A Case Study for Language Learning
H. Müge Satar The Open University, UK
In this presentation I will report some of the findings of my PhD study at the Open University, UK. The study aims to investigate how foreign language learners create and experience social presence in dyadic audio/video SCMC. Multimodal data collected from five cases were analysed using an interpretivist framework drawing on interactional sociolinguistics and semiotics. Two main guiding questions in this analysis were: How do each pair accommodate to different modalities in creating social presence online? To what extent is it possible to apply the social presence framework developed by Rourke, Anderson, Garrison and Archer (2001) to audio/video SCMC?
Principles of Instructional Design for Computer-Mediated Language Teaching
German Vargas UMass Amherst School of Education
This presentation will focus on illustrating foundational principles of instructional design as constructed through a survey of computer-mediated-communication and Information Architecture theories and studies. Cognitive as well as social research will be reviewed, synthesized and presented. To be presented are key findings from a small study of student collaboration during a problem-solving exercise mediated through various computer-mediated-communication tools. The various design principles and pedagogical strategies that can be derived from the survey of the literature and from the findings of the study and how they can be applied to the language classroom will be discussed.
Which Group Produces Better Language and Gets Involved in More Input Comprehension in an Online Task-based Language Learning Environment: Advanced- or Intermediate-level Students?
Abdurrahman Arslanyilmaz Youngstown State University
This study examines the effect of language proficiency on input comprehension and language production by non-native speakers (NNS) in an online task-based language learning (TBLL) environment. Twelve non-native advanced-level and 12 non-native intermediate-level students collaboratively completed four communicative tasks using an online TBLL environment specifically designed for this study. Language production was investigated in terms of fluency, accuracy, and complexity including lexical and syntactic complexity. Input comprehension was measured in terms of the ratio of negotiated turns to total turns.
Information Presentation Mode and ESL Student Summaries
Franklin Bacheller Utah State University
The presenter will discuss results of a study and their implications for development of courseware designed to teach summarizing skills to academic ESL students. The study looked for differences associated with mode of information presentation and the patchwriting typically found in ESL summaries. Learners wrote three summaries, and then incorporated their summarized information in a report. For each summary assignment, the mode of information presentation varied. Using text analysis, the researcher compared learner summaries across presentation modes and analyzed written reports for effective incorporation of summarized information.
11:30 – 11:50
Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does Research Tell Us?
Shenggao Wang University of South Florida
This presentation reports the results of a research review on using Web 2.0 tools in second language learning. Major findings revealed that blogs and wikis were most studied, but the applications were limited. Though researchers’ perspectives varied, writing issues dominated the empirical research, whereas other language skills were overlooked. The frequently reported benefit was favorable learning environments, but it was mainly based on learners’ perceptions. The salient effectiveness was the improvement of writing confidence, strategies, and skills. However, few researchers examined learners’ actual progress in writing ability. Furthermore, little research was conducted on less commonly taught languages.
Task-Based Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication Activities and the Development of L2 Grammatical Accuracy: A Mixed Methods Study
Jinrong Li Iowa State University
The study is motivated by the potential benefits of task-based synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) activities on L2 development and a lack of longitudinal studies necessary in this area. To better understand how learners develop their grammatical accuracy through the use of task-based SCMC activities over time, the study uses a mixed methods design looking at differential improvement of 48 adult ESL students in a control and an experiment group and the specific grammatical development patterns over a 15-week semester. Eight writing samples from each student will be collected and coded using Ellis’ (2005) categorization of grammar errors for close examination.
The Global Process of Pedagogical Evaluation of Web-based CALL: The Case of the CALL@C&S Project
Ana Gimeno Universidad Politécnica de Valencia
The aim of this paper is to suggest a research methodology for the pedagogical evaluation of Web-based CALL which has three major characteristics: it is 1) pedagogical–based on pedagogical criteria; 2) integrative–building on both theoretical and practical research; and 3) comprehensive –incorporating a global standpoint including many dimensions of the Web-based CALL development process. The paper is divided into three sections: (1) presentation of a pedagogical evaluation methodology for Web-based CALL designed at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain); (2) description of the Web-based CALL R&D Project called CALL@C&S and (3) implementation of this evaluation methodology to analyse the CALL@C&S Project in context. Thus, this paper also illustrates how to establish links between theory and practice when evaluating Web-based CALL.
Process Writing in a Hybrid Environment: Students’ Perceptions of Technology
Although the use of technology has increased in writing courses that use the process approach to teaching writing, research on students’ perceptions of hybrid learning is limited. This presentation reports a mixed-methods study of students’ attitudes towards the use of technology for the development of writing skills in a first-year composition hybrid unit using Moodle. The unit, in which the students created a website, was based on the process approach to writing. An exit survey completed by students and the analysis of their logs revealed students’ attitudes to online process writing and the extent of their interaction with online writing activities.
Designing Interactive Speaking Activities in Second Life
Advances in computer technology have made possible the development and implementation of innovative and engaging interactive activities that promote speaking among second language learners. Virtual worlds such as Second Life allow for the creation of tasks that stimulate learners to use the target language in meaningful interactions and simulated situations. While partaking in these activities, learners have a chance to enhance their listening skills as well as receive instant feedback. This presentation will discuss issues in the design and implementation of interactive speaking activities in Second Life. We will demonstrate some examples of such activities, mentioning potential adaptations and limitations.
Multiple Response Questions as Affective Structured Input
Tony Houston Bryant University
Multiple response questions, questions with multiple correct answers, are a staple of instruction mediated by Audience Response Systems such as Turning Point and eInstruction. Using radio frequency response devices, learners record their responses to polling questions and the results are tallied and displayed immediately. Multiple response questions are also a staple of affective Structured Input. While corrective feedback is not possible in affective Structured Input, these activities are believed to reinforce form-meaning connections made during referential activities. The present study to determine whether student response indicate that learners attend to meaning when all answers are potentially correct.
2:00 – 2:45
Perceptions of Using Digital Recording for Oral Proficiency Assessment
Peter B Swanson Georgia State University
Promoting student engagement in the second language classroom can be challenging for teachers. Multiple obstacles such as perceptions of irrelevance of authentic language applications and the affective barriers tend to hinder student oral language performance. This session focuses on the use of four free and open source software options for the assessment of students’ speaking proficiency. Findings from multiple studies (grades 8-16) are presented and highlight manifold benefits for both teachers and students. The presenter discusses oral assessment, demonstrates how to use software, and encourages discussion about its applications in the second language classroom.
Teaching and Learning in Limited Technology Contexts
Authors and editors from CALICO’s 2010 book will describe issues of limited technology contexts and interact with participants to explore solutions and workarounds. Implications for teacher education and classroom learning will be discussed.
The Impact of Virtual Environment on 2nd Language Production
This exploratory research examined how a 3-D virtual environment influences linguistic production and task success rate. Its broadened definition of negotiation of meaning beyond just word- or phrase-level to include task and managing the interaction negotiations offers an expanded means of evaluating synchronous communication. Fourteen second-semester German students worked in dyads either in a 3D MUVE or a text-based graphical MOO and completed a task related to the restaurant theme in the course textbook. Discourse analysis of the chat logs was used to categorize and count communication, task-solving and managing interaction negotiations to analyze the output differences between the environments.
Give the Dog Its Tail Back
Robert Donald Stewart Ohio University
The apparent obsession with technology in many sectors — not least of all language instruction — leads in some cases to the tail wagging the dog. Still, technology does have a role to play, perhaps even a very significant one, in many language instruction areas and methodologies. This presentation discusses feedback in composition from an SLA perspective combined with theoretical and practical understandings of Web 2.0 to offer new synergies between teaching and technology in a very specific and student-oriented area of concern: feedback. A variety of concerns are addressed to rearm the proverbial dog with control over its tail.
Courseware has received less attention with the rise of the Web, but it is often still the best way to deliver engaging, pedagogically relevant language learning materials. The panel will discuss the advantages and areas of applicability of several courseware development tools, including how they integrate with the Web and course management systems. The presentation will be useful for both CALICO newcomers and those interested in catching up with new trends in courseware development.
Measuring the Effectiveness of Pronunciation Practice and Modeling
This presentation will discuss a pilot study that was designed to evaluate a web-based pronunciation program incorporated into Spanish language courses at the College of the Holy Cross. As part of a departmental review of the development of oral skills, it was the general consensus that systematic pronunciation practice had not been effectively incorporated into the language curriculum. To this end, Spanish faculty decided to develop a program that would encourage students to work toward improved accuracy and set-up a framework that would enable instructors to provide better feedback.
Media Monitoring Tools for Cultural Awareness and Language Learning
This presentation will describe the adaptation of the government sponsored BBN Broadcast Monitoring System to a language learning application. The authors will demonstrate how the system allows search of a continuous live archive of foreign language television broadcasts, enabling instructors to find clips for classroom use or for developing student-centered activities. Curriculum and test developers can extract and manipulate excerpts that match topics of interest in their creation of materials. Government, military, and academic language learning centers have been using the system for applications beyond language learning, e.g., for media analysis, communications, and cross-cultural awareness. These users are providing feedback to guide future development. *This project was initiated by Dr. Kathleen Egan and sponsored by the DoD/Technical Support Working Group and by Mr. Nicholas Bemish at the Defense Intelligence Agency for system enhancements.
3:00 – 3:45
Developing Collaborative Autonomous Learning Abilities in Computer Mediated Language Learning: Attention to Meaning Among Students in Wiki Space
Greg Kessler Ohio University
This study reports on attention to meaning among 40 NNS pre-service EFL teachers in an online course. The nature of individual and group attention to meaning in a long-term wiki-based collaborative activity illustrates students’ collaborative autonomous language learning abilities. Phases of group collaboration and individual language acts were analyzed. Student interaction and language use appear to benefit from flexible learning environments although student use of these spaces may not be consistent with instructor expectations. The authors propose a framework for CALL that integrates a revision of Littlewood’s (1996) Framework for autonomy within Levy and Hubbard’s (2005) “CALL-Centred viewpoint” (p. 146).
The Use of Moodle Workspaces for Collaborative Language Learning
This paper will present two Moodle workspaces used in projects and courses at the Department of Languages in the Open University, UK. It will describe learners’ use of online environments that were designed to further collaboration and collaborative practice. Different types of users engage with the workspaces in distinct ways, depending on their learning preferences (Grotjahn 2003), stages of participation (Preece & Shneiderman 2009), and personal choices (Ehrmann, Leaver & Oxford 2003). A comparison of different usage patterns will be based on Moodle data analysis and qualitative content analysis of online interactions.
Designing ICALL Applications that Promote Learner Independence
Peter Wood University of Saskatchewan
How can we design ICALL applications that foster learner independence in the widest sense possible? This talk will discuss requirements that have to be met by learners, instructors, the learning context and the tools to create a setting in which truly independent language learning can successfully take place and the suitability of currently available language learning software for truly independent learning. I will argue that using existing natural language processing software has the ability to act as useful tools for independent language learners and can be made accessible to learners by providing a suitable interface for them.
Towards Forming a STEM Wordlist for ESL
Lists such as the 570-item Academic Word List (AWL) (Coxhead 2000) do not focus on scientific, technical, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) vocabulary. Our study addresses the problem of general EAP vocabulary (Hyland and Tse 2007), suggests categories needed for STEM-specific ESL vocabulary, and develops an initial STEM wordlist for classroom and online use. We explore four processes: selecting STEM words from the AWL; filtering out non-STEM words; pairing with non-AWL words to form natural sets (simple, complex; compare, contrast); and extending certain AWL words to STEM- or discipline-specific collocations (biological function, mathematical function, genetic factor, algebraic factor).
Using Multiplayer Gaming to Develop Language and Culture Skills
The ISLET project (Integrated System for Language Education and Training) combines validated instructional approaches, methodologies, emerging technologies, and innovative assessment techniques to develop an educational system with a web-based multiplayer game to generate sufficient learner interest and the persistence essential to second language acquisition by adults. This presentation will provide an overview and brief demonstrations of the components of the ISLET project, including: the cultural training materials, language activities, multiplayer game, and the assessment agenda and techniques. Presenters will reference research findings from the project and discuss the pedagogical implications ISLET has for language and culture education more broadly.
The Innovative Role of Input Enhancement in L2 Listening Comprehension Activities Based on Authentic Video Materials
Maribel Montero Perez K.U.Leuven campus Kortrijk
This presentation will start with a brief outline of cognitive SLA theories focusing on input as a central component in the acquisition process. A global limitation of existing computer-assisted language learning (CALL) studies still concerns the often limited interaction with second language acquisition (SLA) research. In light of this theoretical background, we will examine how we can innovate listening comprehension activities by exploiting means for input enhancement. Our presentation will give an overview of a set of (combinable) enhancement techniques (i.e. transcripts, hypertext, glosses, highlighting) and motivate the choices made for our project (based on literature). The central questions that are raised are: How can we realise input enhancement? How can we offer enhanced input without hampering the global understanding of the fragment?
4:00 – 4:45
Learning Trajectory and Identity Negotiation in Telecollaborative Environments: A Case Study
Sebastien Dubreil University of Tennessee, Knoxville
The purpose of this case study was to investigate issues of process, learning trajectory, and identity (re)negotiation in telecollaborative learning environments. Within the context of a culture class, French and American learners collaborated on a research project (using the socio-constructivist framework of community of inquiry) and engaged in a weekly dialogue using webcams. While gaining knowledge of French and American cultures, learners confronted the challenges of transcultural learning as they negotiated their cultural identities as well as their interlocutors’, and positioned themselves in a dynamic stance between two cultures. The framework and data presented support the effectiveness of telecollaboration in fostering transcultural learning.
The Development and Analysis of a New Korean Diagnostic Test for Third-Year Korean Students
Harold Hendricks HTRSC Brigham Young University
The BYU Humanities Technology and Research Support Center along with the Korean section of the Asian and Near Eastern Languages Department has developed a diagnostic test for third year Korean students that provides a personalized profile of the student’s understanding of Korean grammatical concepts. The results also allow instructors to review the aggregate class profile to determine what concepts might be emphasized in the classroom. Brower-based, diagnostic testing software created by the HTRSC allows students to take the test anytime, provides aggregate reports to the instructors, and captures data for long-term item analysis and research.
A Balancing Act: Experiences Developing an Online Program
Volker Hegelheimer Iowa State University
Julio C Rodriguez Iowa State University
Anne O’Bryan Iowa State University
Kimberly LeVelle Iowa State University
Adolfo A. Carrillo Cabello Iowa State University
Jim Ranalli Iowa State University
This presentation will show how pedagogy, technology, and complex content were integrated in the development of an online TESL/TEFL certificate program. We will focus on the process of redesigning each of the program’s courses that were originally created for face-to-face delivery and on the ways in which the program plans to meet teacher development needs acknowledged in current CALL research. Examples from each course will demonstrate aspects specific to teacher development contexts, such as the need to model effective technology use and the need for students to experience working with technology from both the learner and the instructor perspectives.
Developing and Integrating ICALL Systems
We discuss our current development efforts addressing the pedagogical needs arising from the integration of an ICALL system into two new teaching contexts: two classroom-based language programs and a new distance learning program. The efforts to make the system ready for the new demands include the re-implementation of natural language processing using the annotation-based UIMA architecture to more flexibly support the processing needs of different activity types and to transparently distinguish different representation levels of the learner input. It also includes more informative activity and learner models as needed to adjust feedback and provide more flexibility for activity design.
Corpus-Based Language Learning and Language Awareness
Mat(hias) Schulze University of Waterloo
In our pedagogy-based courseware design, the learning of writing with a focus on the development of complexity, accuracy, and fluency is done through meaning-focused and contextualized tasks and through collaborative knowledge construction in group projects. Our learning objects and designs are all based on research in corpus linguistics. Corpora have been playing a role in data-driven language learning, are a good example of discovery learning, and are employed in many different ways. This paper and the project it is based on contribute to the further integration of language learning with corpora and the development of students’ language awareness.
Effects of Learning Space Design on CALL Pedagogy
This presentation discusses how university language instructors use instructional space, as well as instructor and student perceptions of how the space affects CALL pedagogy. Learning space design is a focal topic in current literature on college teaching (e.g., Educause Quarterly 2009 special issue on Learning Spaces). While many universities are engaging in designing new spaces for learning, there have been relatively few studies focusing on CALL. The general study design consisted of surveys, coupled with open-ended interviews. Preliminary results indicate that students do not necessarily have a preference for a specific type of learning space but are concerned with the teaching that happens in a space.
A Case Study of Student Attitudes and Performance in Beginning Arabic, German and Spanish Using Two Popular Off the Shelf CALL Programs
At West Point, beginning language courses are mandated to use computer-assisted language learning tools to complement traditional classroom instruction. CALL tools available to West Point instructors include Auralog’s Tell Me More, Transparent Language’s BYKI and LanguageNow, Rosetta Stone, LinguaMatch, Tactical Language and Culture Training System, Power Chinese, and the Foreign Service Institute’s Express Language series. This investigation surveyed student attitudes after using two of the above-mentioned CALL packages in Arabic, Chinese, German, and Spanish. In addition, this study provides data on the effectiveness of these CALL tools as evidenced by student surveys and performance on standardized prochievement tests.